Xenopus gastrulation

Both genetic and generic explanations have been invoked for more than a hundred years to explain biological phenomena, sometimes in a spirit of integration, sometimes in a spirit of competition. D’Arcy Thompson famously observed that, “The living medusa has a geometrical symmetry so marked and regular as to suggest a physical or mechanical element in the little creature’s growth and construction …certain simple organic forms might be naturally assumed by one fluid mass within another, when gravity, surface tension and fluid friction play their part” (Thompson 1992 [1942]).  Here we collect a variety of scholarly resources that bear on genetic and generic explanations of development, evolutionary novelty, and evolvability. If you would like to suggest a resource for us to add, please email us the citation information.